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Penehyclidine for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting following bimaxillary orthognathic surgery: a randomized, double‑blind, controlled trial

June 21, 2022

Purpose
To investigate the efficacy and safety of low-dose bolus plus continuous infusion of penehyclidine in preventing
postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) following bimaxillary surgery.
Methods
Three hundred fifty-four patients were randomly allocated into three groups. In the Control group, placebo (nor- mal saline) was injected before anesthesia and infused over 48 h after surgery; in the Bolus group, 0.5 mg penehyclidine was injected before anesthesia, whereas placebo was infused after surgery; in the Infusion group, 0.25 mg penehyclidine were injected before anesthesia, another 0.25 mg penehyclidine was infused after surgery. The primary endpoint was the incidence of PONV within 72 h.
Results
A total of 353 patients were included in intention-to-treat analysis. The PONV incidence was 61.0% (72/118) in the Control group, 40.2% (47/117) in the Bolus group, and 28.0% (33/118) in the Infusion group. The incidence was significantly lower in the Bolus group than in the Control group (RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.51–0.86; adjusted P = 0.003) and in the Infusion group than in the Control group (RR 0.46; 95% CI 0.33–0.63; adjusted P < 0.001); the difference between the Infusion and Bolus groups was not statistically significant (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.48–1.00; adjusted P = 0.144). Emergence agitation occurred more frequently in the Bolus group than in the Control group (36.8% [43/117] vs. 21.2% [25/118], adjusted P = 0.027), but did not differ significantly between the Infusion and Control groups. Conclusions
A low-dose bolus plus continuous infusion of penehyclidine was effective in preventing PONV without increasing emergence agitation.
Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT04454866.
Keywords Penehyclidine · Postoperative nausea and vomiting · Bimaxillary surgery · Orthognathic surgery