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OR in the News

OR in the News (selected articles)

Farag E, Liang C, Mascha EJ, Toth G, Argalious M, Manlapaz M, Gomes J, Ebrahim Z, Hussain MS: Oxygen saturation and postoperative mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated by endovascular thrombectomy. Anesth Analg 2022; 134: 369-379

November 2, 2022

Monitored anesthesia care (MAC) and general anesthesia (GA) with endotra- cheal intubation are the 2 most used techniques for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) undergoing endovascular thrombectomy. We aimed to test the hypothesis that increased arte- rial oxygen concentration during reperfusion period is a mechanism underlying the association between use of GA (versus MAC) and increased risk of in-hospital mortality.
In this retrospective cohort study, data were collected at the Cleveland Clinic between 2013 and 2018. To assess the potential mediation effect of time-weighted average oxygen saturation (Spo2) in first postoperative 48 hours between the association between GA versus MAC and in-hospital mortality, we assessed the association between anesthesia type and post-operative Spo2 tertiles (exposure–mediator relationship) through a cumulative logistic regression model and assessed the association between Spo2 and in-hospital mortality (media- tor–outcome relationship) using logistic regression models. Confounding factors were adjusted for using propensity score methods. Both significant exposure–mediator and significant media- tor–outcome relationships are needed to suggest potential mediation effect.
Among 358 patients included in the study, 104 (29%) patients received GA and 254 (71%) received MAC, with respective hospital mortality rate of 19% and 5% (unadjusted P value <.001). GA patients were 1.6 (1.2, 2.1) (P < .001) times more likely to have a higher Spo2 tertile as compared to MAC patients. Patients with higher Spo2 tertile had 3.8 (2.1, 6.9) times higher odds of mortality than patients with middle Spo2 tertile, while patients in the lower Spo2 tertile did not have significant higher odds compared to the middle tertile odds ratio (OR) (1.8 [0.9, 3.4]; overall P < .001). The significant exposure–mediator and mediator–outcome relationships suggest that Spo2 may be a mediator of the relationship between anesthetic method and mor- tality. However, the estimated direct effect of GA versus MAC on mortality (ie, after adjusting for Spo2; OR [95% confidence interval {CI}] of 2.1 [0.9–4.9]) was close to the estimated association ignoring Spo2 (OR [95% CI] of 2.2 [1.0–5.1]), neither statistically significant, suggesting that Spo2 had at most a modest mediator role. CONCLUSIONS:
GA was associated with a higher Spo2 compared to MAC among those treated by endovascular thrombectomy for AIS. Spo2 values that were higher than the middle tertile were associated with higher odds of mortality. However, GA was not significantly associated with higher odds of death. Spo2 at most constituted a modest mediator role in explaining the relationship between GA versus MAC and mortality.