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Association between perioperative hypotension and postoperative delirium and atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: A post-hoc analysis of the DECADE trial

September 20, 2022

objective:
To test the hypotheses that in adults having cardiac surgery with cardio-pulmonary bypass, perioperative hypotension increases the risk of delirium and atrial fibrillation during the initial five postoperative days.
Design: Sub-analysis of the DECADE multi-center randomized trial.
Setting: Patients who had cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at the Cleveland Clinic.
Interventions:
In the underlying trial, patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to dexmedetomidine or normal saline placebo.
Measurements:
Intraoperative mean arterial pressures were recorded at 1-min intervals from arterial catheters or at 1–5-min intervals oscillometrically. Postoperative blood pressures were recorded every half-hour or more often. The co-primary outcomes were atrial fibrillation and delirium occurring between intensive care unit admission and the earlier of postoperative day 5 or hospital discharge. Delirium was assessed twice daily during the initial 5 postoperative days while patients remained hospitalized with the Confusion Assessment Method for the intensive care unit. Assessments were made by trained research fellows who were blinded to the dexme- detomidine administration.
Main results:
There was no significant association between intraoperative hypotension and delirium, with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.09; P = 0.419) for a doubling in AUC of mean arterial pressure (MAP) <60 mmHg. An increase in intraoperative AUC of MAP <60 mmHg was not significantly associated with the odds of atrial fibrillation (adjusted odds ratio = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.11; P = 0.819). Postoperative MAP <70 mmHg per hour 1.14 (97.5% CI: 1.04,1.26; P = 0.002) and MAP <80 mmHg per hour 1.05 (97.5%: 1.01, 1.10; P = 0.010) were significantly associated with atrial fibrillation. Conclusions:
In patients having cardiac surgery with cardio-pulmonary bypass, neither intraoperative nor post- operative hypotension were associated with delirium. Postoperative hypotension was associated with atrial fibrillation, although intraoperative hypotension was not.