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Artificial Intelligence for Perioperative Medicine: Perioperative Intelligence

November 4, 2023

The anesthesiologist’s role has expanded beyond the operating room, and anesthesiologist-led care teams can deliver coordinated care that spans the entire surgical experience, from pre- operative optimization to long-term recovery of surgical patients. This expanded role can help reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality, which are regrettably common, unlike rare intra- operative mortality. Postoperative mortality, if considered a disease category, will be the third leading cause of death just after heart disease and cancer. Rapid advances in technologies like artificial intelligence provide an opportunity to build safe perioperative practices. Artificial intel- ligence helps by analyzing complex data across disparate systems and producing actionable information. Using artificial intelligence technologies, we can critically examine every aspect of perioperative medicine and devise innovative value-based solutions that can potentially improve patient safety and care delivery, while optimizing cost of care. In this narrative review, we dis- cuss specific applications of artificial intelligence that may help advance all aspects of periop- erative medicine, including clinical care, education, quality improvement, and research. We also discuss potential limitations of technology and provide our recommendations for successful adoption. (Anesth Analg 2023;136:637–45)