Providing the evidence for evidence-based medicine©


2016 Annual Report

The OUTCOMES RESEARCH Group was formed in 1990 at the University of California in San Francisco and subsequently became an institute when the group's administrative center moved to the University of Louisville in March of 2000. In 2005, OUTCOMES RESEARCH became a department at the Cleveland Clinic. After 9 years, the Department of OUTCOMES RESEARCH now includes 65 members at the Clinic, among more than 130 academic investigators in fifteen countries including the Austria, Canada, China, Ireland, Israel, Japan, China, and the United States. The Consortium is non-profit; its only goal is thus participation in high-quality research.

Last year was the Consortium’s 25th Anniversary. This milestone was celebrated by an editorial in Anesthesiology by Henry Rosenberg (2015; 123:1233-4). It starts: “IMAGINE a research group made up of more than 100 members working both independently and collaboratively across many countries having no legal standing, no bank account, and loosely organized, but devoted to the goal of improving health care through the understanding of the results of health care practices. Furthermore, imagine that members of this organization have published more than 900 full journal articles since its inception and publish a new full paper every 5 days. It may be hard to believe that such a unique organization exists, but it does. It is known as the OUTCOMES RESEARCH Consortium.”

The Consortium is currently involved in more than 130 clinical studies, including many large multi-center outcome trials. Much of the Consortium’s funding is from the National Institutes of Health, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and other peer-reviewed granting agencies. The Consortium facilitates scientific exchange and collaboration necessary for technically complex outcomes studies involving hundreds or thousands of patients. Additional information is available at


Outcomes research seeks to understand the end results of particular health care practices and interventions. End results include effects that people experience and care about, such as change in the ability to function. In particular, for individuals with chronic conditions&emdash;where cure is not always possible&emdash;end results include quality of life as well as mortality. By linking the care people get to the outcomes they experience, outcomes research has become the key to developing better ways to monitor and improve the quality of care.

The general goal of the OUTCOMES RESEARCH Consortium is to evaluate inexpensive, low-risk interventions that are easy to implement yet likely to markedly improve outcome. For example, we have shown that simply maintaining intraoperative normothermia markedly reduces the risk of complications&emdash;and does so at trivial cost. A consequence of our work is that active intraoperative warming has become routine, whereas it was rare a decade ago.


Be the world's leading anesthesia-related clinical research organization.


1. Publish more high-impact, peer-reviewed clinical research papers (quantified as number times impact) than any other anesthesia organization.

2. Recruit more extra-mural clinical research funding than any other anesthesia organization, with "clinical research" being defined as research conducted with human subjects.

3. Train clinical investigators at all levels.


Administrative Structure

Director: Daniel I. Sessler, M.D. Cleveland USA
Associate Director: Andrea Kurz, M.D. Cleveland USA

Site Directors

Donal Buggy, M.D. Dublin Ireland
Tibi Ezri, M.D. Tel Aviv Israel
Edith Fleischmann, M.D. Vienna Austria
Kate Leslie, M.D. Melbourne Australia
Peter Szmuk, M.D. Dallas USA
Yuguang Huang, M.D. Beijing China
Toshi Mizobe, M.D., Ph.D. Kyoto Japan
Thomas Volk, M.D. Homburg Germany
Ngai, Liu, M.D., Ph.D. Paris France

General Members

Member City Country
Alaa Abd-Elsayed, M.D.CincinnatiUSA
Basem B. Abdelmalak, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Zanetti Ahmed, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Sanchit Ahuja, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Ozan Akca, M.D.LouisvilleUSA
Christian C. Apfel, M.D.LarkspurUSA
Harendra Arora, M.D.Chapel HillUSA
Valentina Assenzo, M.D.Suresnes, ParisFrance
Abdulkadir Atim, M.D.AnkaraTurkey
Sabry Ayad, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Rovnat Babazade, M.D.GalvestonUSA
Gausan Bajracharya, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Allen Bashour, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Sergio D. Bergese, M.D.ColumbusUSA
Bruce M. Biccard, M.B.Ch.B., Ph.D.Cape TownSouth Africa
Peter Biro, M.D.ZurichSwitzerland
Bianka Nguyen, B.S.ClevelandUSA
Hagen Bomberg, M.D.HomburgGermany
Donal J. Buggy, M.D., FRCPIDublinIreland
Juan Cata, M.D.HoustonUSA
Christine Chang, B.S.ClevelandUSA
Praneeta Chodavarapu, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Barak Cohen, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Allen CollinsClevelandUSA
Evis Cuko, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Jacek B. Cywinski, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Jarrod E. Dalton, Ph.D.ClevelandUSA
Gildasio S. De Oliveira Jr., M.D.ChicagoUSA
Stacie G. Deiner, M.D.New YorkUSA
Anthony G. Doufas, M.D., Ph.D.StanfordUSA
Andra E. Duncan, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Ruthy Edry, M.D.HaifaIsrael
Hesham Elsharkawy, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Yashar Eshraghi, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Tibi Ezri, M.D.HolonIsrael
Ehab S.A. Farag, M.D., F.R.C.A.ClevelandUSA
Mary FedericoClevelandUSA
Tobias Fink, M.D.HomburgGermany
Edith Fleischmann, M.D.ViennaAustria
Béla Fülesdi, M.D., Ph.D.DebrecenHungary
Rodney A. Gabriel, M.D.La JollaUSA
Logan Glosser, B.A.ClevelandUSA
Srinivasa Govindarajan, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Martin V. Grady, M.D.Mayfield HeightsUSA
Manal Hassan, M.D.Mayfield HeightsUSA
Steve Hata, M.D., F.C.C.P., M.S.C.ClevelandUSA
Linda He, B.S.ClevelandUSA
Hooman Honar, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Karen Hovsepyan, M.D.Cleveland
Yuguang Huang, M.D.BeijingChina
Grace Huh, B.S.ClevelandUSA
Matthew Hutcherson, B.S.ClevelandUSA
Brian M. Ilfeld, M.D., M.S.San DiegoUSA
Steven R. Insler, D.O.ClevelandUSA
Daniela C. Ionescu, Ph.D., D.E.A.A.Cluj-NapocaRomania
Tadahiko Ishiyama, M.D., Ph.D.ChuoJapan
Pia Jaeger, M.D., Ph.D.CopenhagenDenmark
Yuan Jia, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Roberta JohnsonClevelandUSA
Barbara Kabon, M.D.ViennaAustria
Prathima Kalasbail, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Nika Karimi, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Yusuke Kasuya, M.D.TokyoJapan
Roop Kaw, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Ashish K. Khanna, M.D., F.C.C.P.ClevelandUSA
Oliver Kimberger, M.D.ViennaAustria
Ryu Komatsu, M.D.Palo AltoUSA
Onur Koyuncu, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Sascha Kreuer, M.D.HomburgGermany
Priya A. Kumar, M.D.Chapel HillUSA
Meera Kumari, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Andrea M. Kurz, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Erin La Bua, M.B.A.ClevelandUSA
Giovanni Landoni, M.D.MilanItaly
Rana K. Latif, M.D., F.C.A.I.LouisvilleUSA
Kate Leslie, M.D., F.A.N.Z.C.A.ParkvilleAustralia
Steve Leung, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Liu Liu, Ph.D.ClevelandUSA
Ngai Liu, M.D., Ph.D.SuresnesFrance
Chetan Lokhande, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Dominik Lorenz, M.D.Homburg / SaarGermany
Anthony T. Machi, M.D.DallasUSA
Ankit Maheshwari, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Kamal Maheshwari, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Natalya Makarova, M.S.ClevelandUSA
Guangmei Mao, M.S.ClevelandUSA
Edward J. Mascha, Ph.D.ClevelandUSA
Takashi Matsukawa, M.D.ChuoJapan
Mark Mettler, ClevelandUSA
Scott A. Miller, M.D.Winston SalemUSA
Toshiki Mizobe, M.D., Ph.D.KyotoJapan
Zhirajr Mokini, M.D.MonzaItaly
Adam Morris, B.S.ClevelandUSA
Sohail Mulla, M.Sc.HamiltonCanada
Yasufumi Nakajima, M.D., Ph.D.KyotoJapan
Amanda Naylor, B.A.ClevelandUSA
Azfar Niazi, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Tariq Niazi, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Detlef E.R. Obal, M.D., Ph.D., D.E.S.A.LouisvilleUSA
Makoto Ozaki, M.D., Ph.D.TokyoJapan
Krit Panjasawatwong, M.D.BangkokTailand
Marie-Odile Parat, Pharm.D., Ph.D.WoolloongabbaAustralia
Lijian Pei, M.D.BeijingChina
Silvia E. Perez-Protto, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Reuven Pizov, M.D.HaifaIsrael
Olga M. Plattner, M.D.ViennaAustria
Attila Podolyak, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Syed Rasa, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Eric Reville, B.S.ClevelandUSA
David A. Rincón-Valenzuela, M.D.BogotáColombia
Quinton Riter, B.S.ClevelandUSA
Ricardo Riveros-Perez, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Reitze N. Rodseth, M.B.Ch.B., M.Med.DurbanSouth Africa
Kurt Ruetzler, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Leif Saager, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Wael Saasouh, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Partha Saha, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Vafi Salmasi, M.D.Palo AltoUSA
Youssef Saweris, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Nadav Schacharm, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Thomas P. Schricker, M.D., Ph.D.MontrealCanada
Daniel I. Sessler, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Abraham Sonny, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Jeff W. Steiner, D.O.DallasUSA
Taylor Strang, B.S.ClevelandUSA
Iman Suleiman, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Peter Szmuk, M.D.DallasUSA
Abdullah S. Terkawi, M.D.CharlottesvilleUSA
David Torres, M.D.SantiagoChile
Tanja A. Treschan, M.D.DüsseldorfGermany
Elena Trimbitas, B.B.A.ClevelandUSA
Alparslan Turan, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Belinda Udeh, Ph.D.ClevelandUSA
Tom O. Vamosperci, M.B.A.ClevelandUSA
Tamás Végh, M.D., Ph.D.DebrecenHungary
Joseph VitaleClevelandUSA
Thomas Volk, M.D.HomburgGermany
Anupama Wadhwa, M.D.LouisvilleUSA
Catherine I. Wang, M.D.BeijingChina
Min Wei, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Dehua Wu, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Jason Wu, M.D.ShanghaiChina
Jiang Wu, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Jack Xu, M.A.ClevelandUSA
Lexie Xu, M.D.BeijingChina
Merve Yaici KaraClevelandUSA
Dongsheng Yang, M.S.ClevelandUSA
Jean-Pierre Yared, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Oguz Yilmaz, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Jing You, M.S.ClevelandUSA
Hani Yousef, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Kan Zhang, M.D.ClevelandUSA
Nicole M. Zimmerman, M.S.ClevelandUSA

Research Fellows

Name Origin Dates Subsequent Position
Nika Karimi, M.D.USA2014-16Anesthesia resident, Rochester Univ.
Iman SuleimanSyria2014-16Neuroanesthesia, Northwestern
Wael Saasouh, M.D.Lebanon2014-16Neuroanesthesia, Cleveland Clinic
Ming-Hui Hung, M.D.Taiwan2015-16Faculty, National Taiwan University
Onur Koyuncu, M.D.Turkey2015-16Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University
Oguz Yilmaz, M.D.Turkey2015-16Faculty, Merzifon Military Hospital
Yuan Jia, M.D.China2015-16Faculty, Fuwai Hospital Beijing
Dehua Wu, M.D.China2015-16Faculty, Shanghai Chest Hospital
Merve Kara, M.D.Turkey2016Faculty, Amasya University Hospital
Meera Kumari, M.D.USA2015-
Azfar Niazi, M.D.Pakistan2015-
Tariq Niazi, M.D.Pakistan2014-
Gerges Azer, M.D.Egypt2014-
Praneeta Chodavarapu, M.D.India2015-
Steven Leung, M.D.USA2015-
Min WeiChina2015-
Gerges Azer, M.D.Egypt2014-
Prathima Kalasbail, M.D.India2015-
Azfar Niazi, M.D.Pakistan2015-
Praneeta Chodavarapu, M.D.India2015-
Karen Hovsepyan, M.D.Armenia2015-
Gausan Bajracharya, M.D.Nepal2016-
Sanchit Ahuja, M.D.India2016-
Barak Cohen, M.D.Israel2016-
Nadav Schacharm, M.D.Israel2016-
Kan Zhang, M.DJapan2016-
Partha Saha, M.D.India2016-

Graduate and Medical Students (full year)

Name Origin Dates Subsequent Position
Matthew Hutcherson, B.S.USA2013-16Univ. Toledo College of Medicine
Amanda Naylor, B.A.USA2013-16Graduate School, Loyola Univ.
Bianka Nguyen, B.S.USA2014-16Ohio Univ. Osteopathic Medicine
Rodrigo Iglesias, M.D.USA2015-16Anesthesia residency, Univ. Penn
Christine Chang, B.SUSA2016-17Cleveland Clinic Medical School
Eric Reville, B.S.USA2015-
Logan GloserUSA2016-
Linda He, B.A.USA2016-
Adam Morris, B.S.USA2016-
Quinton Riter, B.S.USA2016-
Joseph Vitale, B.S.USA2016-

Honors and Awards

Name Honor Organization
Tibi Ezri Distinguished Service AwardWorld Federation of Anesth Societies
Kate LeslieOfficer in the Order of AustraliaAustralia
Basem AbdelmalakSafety ChampionCleveland Clinic
Ashish KhannaPresidential CitationSociety of Critical Care Medicine
Hesham ElsharkawyInnovation AwardCleveland Clinic
Wael SaasouhFirst place abstractOhio Society of Anesthesiologists

Consortium Research Awards

The Gladys Sessler Prize is an endowed award that is given yearly. All research fellows and junior faculty members of the OUTCOMES RESEARCH Consortium are eligible. This year’s award was to Sabry Ayad for starting and directing the clinical research program at Fairview Hospital.

The Best Fellow Award is given to the Department of OUTCOMES RESEARCH fellow who is voted by the faculty to have performed at the very highest level. This year’s award was given to Nika Karimi, who was also our Chief Fellow, for coordinating a major trial of levosimendan and conducting a registry analysis of hypothyroidism in cardiac patients. Nika is now an anesthesia resident at the University of Rochester.

Active Grants

Peer-Reviewed Sources Agency Principal Investigator Direct cost ($) Dates
Hyperinsulinemic glucose control and myocardial function during cardiac surgeryNational Institutes of Health (K23HL093056)Duncan722,5002010-16
Treating Intractable Post Amputation Phantom Limb Pain with Ambulatory Continuous peripheral Nerve BlocksDOD W81XWH-13-2-009Ilfeld1,835,6462012-16
Informing Fresh versus Old Red cell Management (INFORM)Canadian Institutes of Health ResearchEikelboom1,600,0002012-16
BALANCED TrialNational Health & Medicine Research- AustraliaSessler272,2312013-17
Tissue oxygen and surgical wound infectionDrown FoundationSessler50,0002014-15
Development and validation of a computer algorithm to detect artifact in electronic databasesFAERSaager175,0002014-16
RELIEFAlfred Health INCKurz236,9582014-17
Triple low research studyDrown FoundationSessler75,0002015-16
RETT Syndrome StudyRett Syndrome FoundationKatz1,177,3922015-17
Electrical stimulation to reduce pain and improve function after TKANIHBoggs2,121,0002015-18
Ambulatory peripheral nerve stimulation for postoperative analgesiaUCSD Academic SenateIlfeld10,0002016
Randomized trial comparing subcostal quadratus lumborum and epidural blocks for open nephrectomyCleveland Clinic Research Programs CommitteeElsharkawy12,5002016-17
Neurocognitive Outcomes 5 Years After Infant Anesthesia: The GAS TrialThrasher Research FundSzmuk23,2502015-17
Multicenter study of use and complications in pediatric regional anesthesia (Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Network)Seattle Childrens/AxioSzmukN/A2008-
Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Perioperative RegistryCHOPSzmuk N/A2012-
Pediatric Difficult Intubation (PeDI) RegistryCHOPSzmuk N/A2012-
An Open-Label Pilot study of a Dexmedetomidine-Remifentanil-Caudal Anesthestic for Infant Lower Abdominal/Lower Extremity Surgery: The TREX studyCHOPSzmuk N/A2015-17
Evaluation of pulmonary regurgitation and aspiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): a crossover pilot human cadaver study Research Programs Committees, Cleveland ClinicRuetzler 12,5002017
Corporate Sources Agency Principal Investigator Direct cost ($) Dates
BIS and long-term outcomesCovidienSessler1,980,0002009-17
Prevention of Atrial Arrhythmias and Delirium after Cardiac Surgery with Dexmedetomidine HospiraTuran527,8592013-16
Effect of IV Acetaminophen on Postoperative Opioid Related ComplicationsCadence PharmaTuran589,1112013-16
Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of BAY 41-6551 as Adjunctive Therapy in Intubated and Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Gram-Negative PneumoniaBayerUdeh88,1912013-16
Incidence of postoperative events and efficiency of surgery in current practice among patients exposed to reversals of neuromuscular blocking agents in the Cleveland ClinicMerckSaager231,2502014-16
Surgeon Satisfaction protocolMerck Saager128,4042014-16
A Randomized Controlled Investigation of the Effects of 6% Hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 (Voluven) on Renal Function in Patients Having Aortic Valve ReplacementFresenius KabiDuncan241,6072014-16
Neuros Data and Safety monitoring board and statistical analysis agreementNeuros MedicalSessler109,8652014-16
Detection and Prediction of Postoperative Acute Myocardial Ischemic Injury/ Infraction by the Vectraplex ECG System with CEBVectraCor Inc.Sessler183,8462014-16
Randomized, Phase III Study of APD421 (Amisulpride for IV Injection) as Prophylaxis Against PONV in High Risk PatientsPremier Research InternationalAyad110,9802015-16
Development of statistical plan and sample size for a FDA trialMedasenseMascha4,6152015-16
Heat TransferAdvanced CoolingSessler33,0002015-16
Protocol development, data management and manuscript preparationRaiing MedicalSessler39,7502015-16
Spinal Warming and Arterio-venous Shunt Flow During general AnesthesiaMercury Biomed LLCKurz32,6932015-16
Pharmacokinetics of Phenylephrine and the Pharmacodynamic Effects on Blood Pressure following Intravenous Administration of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Injection in Pediatric Subjects having Neuroaxial AnesthesiaPRA Health SciencesRiveros- Perez128,1322015-16
TAP Blocks with Exparel versus Continuous Analgesia versus Intravenous Opioid Patients- controlled Analgesia; Pharmacoeconomic analysis of pilot dataPaciraTuran26,9232015-16
The Incidence and Severity of Postoperative Hypoxemia and Hypotension, and the extent to which each is missed by the current clinical monitoring routineSotera WirelessSessler152,4002015-17
Effect of Goal-directed Crystalloid versus Colloid AdministrationFresenius Kabi Kurz205,2232015-17
A Randomized Trial to Determine the Effect of Gabapentin Enacarbil on Opioid Consumption and Pain Score in Patients having Hip and Knee Arthroplasties with Spinal AnesthesiaXenoPort IncAyad204,1002015-17
A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery Requiring BypassTenax TherapeuticDuncan119,6322015-17
A Phase 3, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multi-Center Study of LJPC-501 in Patients with Catecholamine-Resistant Hypotension (CRH)La Jolla Pharmaceutical CoKhanna203,2122015-17
SMARTPATCH peripheral nerve stimulationSPR Therapeutics and Department of DefenseBoggs3,100,0002015-17
Hypothermia and infection, registry analysis3MSessler75,0002016-17
Hypothermia and MINS, registry analysis3MSessler75,0002016-17
Mild hypothermia and MINS randomized trial3MSessler1,700,0002016-19
Continuous TAP blocks: basal infusion vs. repeated bolus dosesZyno MedicalIlfeld81,4502016
Iovera Device for TKAMyoscienceIlfeld85,3632015-16
Needle guidance for paravertebral ultrasound-guided blocks in cadaversVIVCO Medical SolutionsElsharkawy40,0002016-17
Randomized trial comparing subcostal quadratus lumborum and epidural blocks for open nephrectomyPajunk MedicalElsharkawy10,0002017
The Role of Noninvasive Beat-to-Beat ClearSight Blood Pressure Monitoring During non-cardiac SurgeryEdwards LifesciencesMaheshwari348,0002016-18
Evaluation of SEDLine EEG monitoring in pediatric patients undergoing General Anesthesia or SedationMasimoSzmuk63,4402015-18
Multi-Center Open Label Pediatric Oxymorphone Solution TrialEndoSzmuk199,7262010-17
Multi-Center Open Label Single Dose and Placebo Controlled Multi Dose Oxymorphone trialEndoSzmuk230,0362016-19
PK/PD Effects on Blood Pressure Following IV Phenylephrine AdministrationWestwardSzmuk87,1102015-18
PK/Safety of Oral Opioid SolutionVistapharmSzmuk121,1602014-17
Efficacy/Safety of Opioid for post-op acute painGruenthalSzmuk73,8602015-17

List includes grants on which an OUTCOMES RESEARCH Consortium member is a co-investigator. Amounts shown are totals for multi-year projects; funding for the current year is considerably less.


Contribution to the world’s literature

A recent article by Pagel and Hudetz (BMC Anesthesiology 12:5, 2012) evaluates anesthesia publication trends. Their analysis was restricted to 14 English-language journals with an impact factor >1 which are the ones most likely to influence clinical practice. In 2010, the last year they report, there were 280 clinical research articles published. Last year, the Consortium published 39 papers in the 14 journals they considered. The Outcomes Research Consortium thus publishes more than 10% of the clinical research in high-profile general anesthesia journals. Of note, the Consortium also publishes nearly as many papers in specialty journals ranging from pain to critical care to neuroscience, and in major multi-specialty journals. Overall, the Consortium publishes a full paper or editorial every four days.

This year’s featured papers

Heddle NM, Cook RJ, Arnold DM, Liu Y, Barty R, Crowther MA, Devereaux PJ, Hirsh J, Warkentin TE, Webert KE, Roxby D, Sobieraj-Teague M, Kurz A, Sessler DI, Figueroa P, Ellis M, Eikelboom JW: Effect of short-term vs. Long-term blood storage on mortality after transfusion. N Engl J Med 2016; 375: 1937-45. [Cameron Egan and Matthew Hutcherson were also authors]

Background: Randomized, controlled trials have suggested that the transfusion of blood after prolonged storage does not increase the risk of adverse outcomes among patients, although most of these trials were restricted to high-risk populations and were not powered to detect small but clinically important differences in mortality. We sought to find out whether the duration of blood storage would have an effect on mortality after transfusion in a general population of hospitalized patients.

Methods: In this pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial conducted at six hospitals in four countries, we randomly assigned patients who required a red-cell transfusion to receive blood that had been stored for the shortest duration (short-term storage group) or the longest duration (long-term storage group) in a 1:2 ratio. Only patients with type A or O blood were included in the primary analysis, since pilot data suggested that our goal of achieving a difference in the mean duration of blood storage of at least 10 days would not be possible with other blood types. Written informed consent was waived because all the patients received treatment consistent with the current standard of care. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, which was estimated by means of a logistic-regression model after adjustment for study center and patient blood type.

Results: From April 2012 through October 2015, a total of 31,497 patients underwent randomization. Of these patients, 6761 who did not meet all the enrollment criteria were excluded after randomization. The primary analysis included 20,858 patients with type A or O blood. Of these patients, 6936 were assigned to the short-term storage group and 13,922 to the long-term storage group. The mean storage duration was 13.0 days in the short-term storage group and 23.6 days in the long-term storage group. There were 634 deaths (9.1%) in the short-term storage group and 1213 (8.7%) in the long-term storage group (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.16; P=0.34). When the analysis was expanded to include the 24,736 patients with any blood type, the results were similar, with rates of death of 9.1% and 8.8%, respectively (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.14; P=0.38). Additional results were consistent in three prespecified high-risk subgroups (patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery, those admitted to intensive care, and those with cancer).

Conclusions: Among patients in a general hospital population, there was no significant difference in the rate of death among those who underwent transfusion with the freshest available blood and those who underwent transfusion according to the standard practice of transfusing the oldest available blood.

Published Full Papers

1. Abdelmalak BB, Duncan AE, Bonilla A, Yang D, Parra-Sanchez I, Fergany A, Irefin SA, Sessler DI: The intraoperative glycemic response to intravenous insulin during noncardiac surgery: a subanalysis of the DeLiT randomized trial. J Clin Anesth 2016; 29: 19-29

2. Akhtar Z, Hesler BD, Fiffick AN, Mascha EJ, Sessler DI, Kurz A, Ayad S, Saager L: A randomized trial of prewarming on patient satisfaction and thermal comfort in outpatient surgery. J Clin Anesth 2016; 33: 376-85

3. Asgarian CD, Martinelli SM, Mark JB, Kumar PA: Partial Anomalous Hepatic Venous Return: A Systematic Intraoperative Exclusion of Other Serious Diagnoses. Anesth Analg 2016; 122: 349-53

4. Ayad S, Babazade R, Elsharkawy H, Nadar V, Lokhande C, Makarova N, Khanna R, Sessler DI, Turan A: Comparison of transversus abdominis plane infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine versus continuous epidural analgesia versus intravenous opioid analgesia. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0153675

5. Babazade R, Sreenivasalu T, Jain P, Hutcherson MT, Naylor AJ, You J, Elsharkawy H, Wael AS, Turan A: A nomogram for predicting the need for sciatic nerve block after total knee arthroplasty. J Anesth 2016; 30: 864-72

6. Babazade R, Turan A: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of sublingual sufentanil in the treatment of post-operative pain. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2016; 12: 217-24

7. Babazade R, Yilmaz HO, Zimmerman NM, Stocchi L, Gorgun E, Kessler H, Sessler DI, Kurz A, Turan A: Association between intraoperative low blood pressure and development of surgical site infection after colorectal surgery: A retrospective cohort study. Ann Surg 2016; 264: 1058-64

8. Bataille A, Letourneulx JF, Charmeau A, Lemedioni P, Leger P, Chazot T, Le Guen M, Diemunsch P, Fischler M, Liu N: Impact of a prophylactic combination of dexamethasone-ondansetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting in obese adult patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy during closed-loop propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2016; 33: 898-905

9. Belcher AW, Khanna AK, Leung S, Naylor AJ, Hutcherson MT, Nguyen BM, Makarova N, Sessler DI, Devereaux PJ, Saager L: Long-acting patient-controlled opioids are not associated with more postoperative hypoxemia than short-acting patient-controlled opioids after noncardiac surgery: A cohort analysis. Anesth Analg 2016; 123: 1471-9

10. Bhatia M, Arora H, Kumar PA: Pro: ACE inhibitors should be continued perioperatively and prior to cardiovascular operations. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 2016; 30: 816-9

11. Bishop DG, Rodseth RN, Dyer RA: Recipes for obstetric spinal hypotension: The clinical context counts. S Afr Med J 2016; 106: 861-4

12. Bishop DG, Wise RD, Lee C, von Rahden RP, Rodseth RN: Heart rate variability predicts 30-day all-cause mortality in intensive care units. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 2016; 22: 125-8

13. Bodner-Adler B, Mayerhofer K, Czerwenka K, Kimberger O, Koelbl H, Bodner K: The role of fibroblast growth factor 2 in patients with uterine smooth muscle tumors: an immunohistochemical study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2016; 207: 62-7

14. Bomberg H, Krotten D, Kubulus C, Wagenpfeil S, Kessler P, Steinfeldt T, Standl T, Gottschalk A, Stork J, Meissner W, Birnbaum J, Koch T, Sessler DI, Volk T, Raddatz A: Single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in regional anesthesia: A retrospective registry analysis. Anesthesiology 2016; 125: 505-15

15. Bomberg H, Kubulus C, Herberger S, Wagenpfeil S, Kessler P, Steinfeldt T, Standl T, Gottschalk A, Stork J, Meissner W, Birnbaum J, Koch T, Sessler DI, Volk T, Raddatz A: Tunnelling of thoracic epidural catheters is associated with fewer catheter-related infections: a retrospective registry analysis. Br J Anaesth 2016; 116: 546-53

16. Chan MTV, Peyton PJ, Myles PS, Leslie K, Buckley N, Kasza J, Paech MJ, Beattie WS, Sessler DI, Forbes A, Wallace S, Chen Y, Tian Y, Wu WKK: Chronic postsurgical pain in the Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anaesthesia (ENIGMA)-II trial. Br J Anaesth 2016; 117: 801-11

17. Chung F, Memtsoudis SG, Ramachandran SK, Nagappa M, Opperer M, Cozowicz C, Patrawala S, Lam D, Kumar A, Joshi GP, Fleetham J, Ayas N, Collop N, Doufas AG, Eikermann M, Englesakis M, Gali B, Gay P, Hernandez AV, Kaw R, Kezirian EJ, Malhotra A, Mokhlesi B, Parthasarathy S, Stierer T, Wappler F, Hillman DR, Auckley D: Society of anesthesia and sleep medicine guidelines on preoperative screening and assessment of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Anesth Analg 2016; 123: 452-73

18. Dalton JE, Dawson NV, Sessler DI, Schold JD, Love TE, Kattan MW: Empirical treatment effectiveness models for binary outcomes. Med Decis Making 2016; 36: 101-14

19. Devarajan J, Vydyanathan A, You J, Xu M, Sessler DI, Sabik JF, Bashour CA: The association between body mass index and outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting operations. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2016; 50: 344-9

20. Dhillon A, Khanna A, Randhawa MS, Cywinski J, Saager L, Thamilarasan M, Lever HM, Desai MY: Perioperative outcomes of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Heart 2016; 102: 1627-32

21. Distelmaier K, Schrutka L, Binder C, Steinlechner B, Heinz G, Lang IM, Ristl R, Maurer G, Koinig H, Wiedemann D, Rutzler K, Niessner A, Goliasch G: Cardiac arrest does not affect survival in post-operative cardiovascular surgery patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Resuscitation 2016; 104: 24-7

22. Duff S, Connolly C, Buggy DJ: Adrenergic, inflammatory, and immune function in the setting of oncological surgery: Their effects on cancer progression and the role of the anesthetic technique in their modulation. Int Anesthesiol Clin 2016; 54: 48-57

23. Edry R, Recea V, Dikust Y, Sessler DI: Preliminary intraoperative validation of the nociception level index: A noninvasive nociception monitor. Anesthesiology 2016; 125: 193-203

24. Eikelboom JW, Cook RJ, Barty R, Liu Y, Arnold DM, Crowther MA, Devereaux PJ, Ellis M, Figueroa P, Gallus A, Hirsh J, Kurz A, Roxby D, Sessler DI, Sharon Y, Sobieraj-Teague M, Warkentin TE, Webert KE, Heddle NM: Rationale and design of the informing fresh versus old red cell management (INFORM) trial: an international pragmatic randomized trial. Transfus Med Rev 2016; 30: 25-9

25. Eikelboom JW, Kearon C, Guyatt G, Sessler DI, Yusuf S, Cook D, Douketis J, Patel A, Kurz A, Allard R, Jones PM, Dennis RJ, Painter TW, Bergese SD, Leslie K, Wijeysundera DN, Balasubramanian K, Duceppe E, Miller S, Diedericks J, Devereaux PJ: Perioperative aspirin for prevention of venous thromboembolism: The perioperative ischemia evaluation-2 trial and a pooled analysis of the randomized trials. Anesthesiology 2016; 125: 1121-9

26. Elsharkawy H, Abd-Elsayed A, El-Hadi S, Provencio J, Tetzlaff J: Fluctuating electrocardiographic changes predict poor outcomes after acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Ochsner J 2016; 16: 225-9

27. Elsharkawy H, Maheshwari A, Farag E, Mariano ER, Rosenquist RW: Development of technologies for placement of perineural catheters. J Anesth 2016; 30: 138-47

28. Ezri T, Boaz M, Sherman A, Armaly M, Berlovitz Y: Sugammadex: An update. J Crit Care Med 2016; 2: 16-21

29. Farag E: Airway management for cervical spine surgery. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology 2016; 30: 13-25

30. Freeman J, Connolly C, Buggy D: Mechanisms of metastasis of solid organ tumors in the perioperative period. Int Anesthesiol Clin 2016; 54: 29-47

31. Geube MA, Perez-Protto SE, McGrath TL, Yang D, Sessler DI, Budev MM, Kurz A, McCurry KR, Duncan AE: Increased intraoperative fluid administration is associated with severe primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Anesth Analg 2016; 122: 1081-8

32. Gibbins ML, Kane C, Smit RW, Rodseth RN: Periarticular local anaesthetic in knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. SA Orthopaedic Journal 2016; 15

33. Gordon KG, Choi S, Rodseth RN: The role of dexamethasone in peripheral and neuraxial nerve blocks for the management of acute pain. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 2016; 22: 163-9

34. Gorgun E, Lan BY, Aydinli HH, Reed GW, Menon V, Sessler DI, Stocchi L, Remzi FH: Troponin elevation after colorectal surgery: Significance and management. Ann Surg 2016; 264: 605-11

35. Heddle NM, Cook RJ, Arnold DM, Liu Y, Barty R, Crowther MA, Devereaux PJ, Hirsh J, Warkentin TE, Webert KE, Roxby D, Sobieraj-Teague M, Kurz A, Sessler DI, Figueroa P, Ellis M, Eikelboom JW: Effect of short-term vs. Long-term blood storage on mortality after transfusion. N Engl J Med 2016; 375: 1937-45

36. Hsieh JK, Dalton JE, Yang D, Farag ES, Sessler DI, Kurz AM: The association between mild intraoperative hypotension and stroke in general surgery patients. Anesth Analg 2016; 123: 933-9

37. Huppe T, Lorenz D, Maurer F, Albrecht FW, Schnauber K, Wolf B, Sessler DI, Volk T, Fink T, Kreuer S: Exhalation of volatile organic compounds during hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion in rats: an exploratory trial. J Breath Res 2016; 10: 016016

38. Ionescu D: Have severity scores a place in predicting septic complications in icu multiple trauma patients? The Journal of Critical Care Medicine 2016; 2

39. Kaw R, Bhateja P, Paz YMH, Hernandez AV, Ramaswamy A, Deshpande A, Aboussouan LS: Postoperative complications in patients with unrecognized obesity hypoventilation syndrome undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery. Chest 2016; 149: 84-91

40. Kaw R, Hernandez AV, Pasupuleti V, Deshpande A, Nagarajan V, Bueno H, Coleman CI, Ioannidis JP, Bhatt DL, Blackstone EH, Cardiovascular Meta-analyses Research Group: Effect of diastolic dysfunction on postoperative outcomes after cardiovascular surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016; 152: 1142-53

41. Khanna AK, Sessler DI, Sun Z, Naylor AJ, You J, Hesler BD, Kurz A, Devereaux PJ, Saager L: Using the STOP-BANG questionnaire to predict hypoxaemia in patients recovering from noncardiac surgery: a prospective cohort analysis. Br J Anaesth 2016; 116: 632-40

42. Latif KR, Bautista A, Duan X, Neamtu A, Wu D, Wadhwa A, Akca O: Teaching basic fiberoptic intubation skills in a simulator: initial learning and skills decay. J Anesth 2016; 30: 12-9

43. Le Guen M, Liu N, Chazot T, Fischler M: Closed-loop anesthesia. Minerva Medica 2016; 82: 573-81

44. Maheshwari K, Cummings KC, Farag E, Makarova N, Turan A, Kurz A: A temporal analysis of opioid use, patient satisfaction, and pain scores in colorectal surgery patients. J Clin Anesth 2016; 34: 661-7

45. Mamoun NF, Lin P, Zimmerman NM, Mascha EJ, Mick SL, Insler SR, Sessler DI, Duncan AE: Intravenous acetaminophen analgesia after cardiac surgery: A randomized, blinded, controlled superiority trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016; 152: 881-9 e1

46. McCormick PJ, Levin MA, Lin HM, Sessler DI, Reich DL: Effectiveness of an electronic alert for hypotension and low bispectral index on 90-day postoperative mortality: A prospective, randomized trial. Anesthesiology 2016; 125: 1113-20

47. Monahan AM, Madison SJ, Loland VJ, Sztain JF, Bishop ML, Sandhu NS, Bellars RH, Khatibi B, Schwartz AK, Ahmed SS, Donohue MC, Nomura ST, Wen CH, Ilfeld BM: Continuous popliteal sciatic blocks: Does varying perineural catheter location relative to the sciatic bifurcation influence block effects? A dual-center, randomized, subject-masked, controlled clinical trial. Anesth Analg 2016; 122: 1689-95

48. Monahan AM, Sztain JF, Khatibi B, Furnish TJ, Jaeger P, Sessler DI, Mascha EJ, You J, Wen CH, Nakanote KA, Ilfeld BM: Continuous adductor canal blocks: Does varying local anesthetic delivery method (automatic repeated bolus doses versus continuous basal infusion) influence cutaneous analgesia and quadriceps femoris strength? A randomized, double-masked, controlled, split-body volunteer study. Anesth Analg 2016; 122: 1681-8

49. Mrkobrada M, Hill MD, Chan MT, Sigamani A, Cowan D, Kurz A, Sessler DI, Jacka M, Graham M, Dasgupta M, Dunlop V, Emery DJ, Gulka I, Guyatt G, Heels-Ansdell D, Murkin J, Pettit S, Sahlas DJ, Sharma M, Sharma M, Srinathan S, St John P, Tsai S, Gelb AW, O'Donnell M, Siu D, Chiu PW, Sharath V, George A, Devereaux PJ: Covert stroke after non-cardiac surgery: a prospective cohort study. Br J Anaesth 2016; 117: 191-7

50. Myles PS, Chan MT, Kasza J, Paech MJ, Leslie K, Peyton PJ, Sessler DI, Haller G, Beattie WS, Osborne C, Sneyd JR, Forbes A: Severe nausea and vomiting in the Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anesthesia II trial. Anesthesiology 2016; 124: 1032-40

51. Nakayama Y, Inagaki Y, Nakajima Y, Sessler DI, Mukai N, Ogawa S, Mizobe T, Sawa T: A practical training program for peripheral radial artery catheterization in adult patients: A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology 2016; 125: 716-23

52. Piegeler T, Roessler B, Goliasch G, Fischer H, Schlaepfer M, Lang S, Ruetzler K: Evaluation of six different airway devices regarding regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - A human cadaver pilot study. Resuscitation 2016; 102: 70-4

53. Piegeler T, Thoeni N, Kaserer A, Brueesch M, Sulser S, Mueller SM, Seifert B, Spahn DR, Ruetzler K: Sex and age aspects in patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective analysis of 760 consecutive patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95: e3561

54. Podolyak A, Sessler DI, Reiterer C, Fleischmann E, Akca O, Mascha EJ, Greif R, Kurz A: Perioperative supplemental oxygen does not worsen long-term mortality of colorectal surgery patients. Anesth Analg 2016; 122: 1907-11

55. Raiman M, Mitchell CG, Biccard BM, Rodseth RN: Comparison of hydroxyethyl starch colloids with crystalloids for surgical patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2016; 33: 42-8

56. Rajan S, Babazade R, Govindarajan SR, Pal R, You J, Mascha EJ, Khanna A, Yang M, Marcano FD, Singh AK, Kaouk J, Turan A: Perioperative factors associated with acute kidney injury after partial nephrectomy. Br J Anaesth 2016; 116: 70-6

57. Rajan S, Hutcherson MT, Sessler DI, Kurz A, Yang D, Ghobrial M, Liu J, Avitsian R: The effects of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil on hemodynamic stability and analgesic requirement after craniotomy: a randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2016; 28: 282-90

58. Rajan S, Khana A, Argalious M, Kimatian SJ, Mascha EJ, Makarova N, Nada EM, Elsharkawy H, Firoozbakhsh F, Avitsian R: Comparison of 2 resident learning tools—interactive screen-based simulated case scenarios versus problem-based learning discussions: a prospective quasi-crossover cohort study. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 2016; 28: 4-11

59. Riveros R, Kimatian S, Castro P, Dhumak V, Honar H, Mascha EJ, Sessler DI: Multisource feedback in professionalism for anesthesia residents. J Clin Anesth 2016; 34: 32-40

60. Riveros-Perez E, Riveros R, Zimmerman NM, Turan A: Anesthesiology residents' perception of educational environment: comparison between different years of training. J Clin Anesth 2016; 35: 376-83

61. Royds J, Khan AH, Buggy DJ: An update on existing ongoing prospective trials evaluating the effect of anesthetic and analgesic techniques during primary cancer surgery on cancer recurrence or metastasis. Int Anesthesiol Clin 2016; 54: e76-83

62. Sari S, Aydin ON, Tasdemir B, Galimberti F, Turan A: Effect of statin use on pain relief by transforaminal epidural steroid injection. J Int Med Res 2016; 44: 389-94

63. Sessler DI: Perioperative thermoregulation and heat balance. Lancet 2016; 387: 2655–64

64. Sessler DI, Devereaux PJ: Perioperative troponin screening. Anesth Analg 2016; 123: 359-60

65. Sessler DI, Makarova N, Riveros-Perez R, Brown DL, Kimatian S: Lack of association between blood pressure management by anesthesia residents and competence committee evaluations or in-training exam performance: a cohort analysis. Anesthesiology 2016; 124: 473-82

66. Shemesh S, Tamir S, Goldfarb A, Ezri T, Roth Y: To proceed or not to proceed: ENT surgery in paediatric patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. J Laryngol Otol 2016; 130: 800-4

67. Steiner JW, Sessler DI, Makarova N, Mascha EJ, Olomu PN, Zhong JW, Setiawan CT, Handy AE, Kravitz BN, Szmuk P: Use of deep laryngeal oxygen insufflation during laryngoscopy in children: a randomized clinical trial. Br J Anaesth 2016; 117: 350-7

68. Sulser S, Ubmann D, Schlaepfer M, Brueesch M, Goliasch G, Seifert B, Spahn DR, Ruetzler K: C-MAC videolaryngoscope compared with direct laryngoscopy for rapid sequence intubation in an emergency department: A randomised clinical trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2016

69. Szmuk P, Steiner JW, Olomu PN, Ploski RP, Sessler DI, Ezri T: Oxygen Reserve Index: A novel noninvasive measure of oxygen reserve-a pilot study. Anesthesiology 2016; 124: 779-84

70. Terkawi AS, Larkin SK, Tsang S, Sheeran JS, Tiouririne M: Effects of hydroxyethyl starch 6 % (130/0.4) on blood loss during cesarean delivery: a propensity-matched analysis. J Anesth 2016; 30: 796-802

71. Terkawi AS, Mavridis D, Flood P, Wetterslev J, Terkawi RS, Bin Abdulhak AA, Nunemaker MS, Tiouririne M: Does ondansetron modify sympathectomy due to subarachnoid anesthesia?: Meta-analysis, meta-regression, and trial sequential analysis. Anesthesiology 2016; 124

72. Turan A, Babazade R, Kurz A, Devereaux PJ, Zimmerman NM, Hutcherson MT, Naylor AJ, Ali Sakr Esa W, Parlow J, Gilron I, Honar H, Salmasi V, Sessler DI: Clonidine does not reduce pain or opioid consumption after noncardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2016; 123: 749-57

73. Walsh M, Whitlock R, Garg AX, Legare JF, Duncan AE, Zimmerman R, Miller S, Fremes S, Kieser T, Karthikeyan G, Chan M, Ho A, Nasr V, Vincent J, Ali I, Lavi R, Sessler DI, Kramer R, Gardner J, Syed S, VanHelder T, Guyatt G, Rao-Melacini P, Thabane L, Devereaux PJ, Remote II: Effects of remote ischemic preconditioning in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery (Remote IMPACT): a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2016; 188: 329-36

74. Wang M, Singh A, Qureshi H, Leone A, Mascha EJ, Sessler DI: Optimal depth for nasopharyngeal temperature probe positioning. Anesth Analg 2016; 122: 1434-8

75. Williams MR, McKeown A, Dexter F, Miner JR, Sessler DI, Vargo J, Turk DC, Dworkin RH: Efficacy outcome measures for procedural sedation clinical trials in adults: An ACTTION systematic review. Anesth Analg 2016; 122: 152-70

76. Windpassinger M, Plattner O, Gemeiner J, Bohler K, Luntzer R, Klimscha W, Yang D, Mascha EJ, Sessler DI: Opioid use after propofol or sevoflurane anesthesia: a randomized trial. Can J Anaesth 2016; 63: 1258-65

77. Windpassinger M, Plattner O, Gemeiner J, Roder G, Baumann A, Zimmerman NM, Sessler DI: Pharyngeal oxygen insufflation during airtraq laryngoscopy slows arterial desaturation in infants and small children. Anesth Analg 2016; 122: 1153-7

78. Wong F, Namdari B, Dupler S, Kovac MF, Makarova N, Dalton JE, Turan A: No difference in pain reduction after epidural steroid injections in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients: A retrospective cohort study. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2016; 32: 84-8

79. Zein JG, Menegay MC, Singer ME, Erzurum SC, Gildea TR, Cicenia JC, Khatri S, Castro M, Udeh BL: Cost effectiveness of bronchial thermoplasty in patients with severe uncontrolled asthma. J Asthma 2016; 53: 194-200

80. Zein JG, Udeh BL, Teague WG, Koroukian SM, Schlitz NK, Bleecker ER, Busse WB, Calhoun WJ, Castro M, Comhair SA, Fitzpatrick AM, Israel E, Wenzel SE, Holguin F, Gaston BM, Erzurum SC, Severe Asthma Research P: Impact of age and sex on outcomes and hospital cost of acute asthma in the United States, 2011-2012. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0157301

81. Komatsu R, Makarova N, You J, Sessler DI, Anthony DB, Kasuya Y, Soltesz EG, Turan A: Etomidate and postoperative atrial arrhythmia after cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort analysis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 30:1516-1522, 2016

82. Pereira KD, Jon CK, Szmuk P, Lazar RH, Mitchell RB: Management of obstructive sleep apnea in children: A practical approach. Ear Nose Throat J 95:E14-22, 2016

83. Fiadjoe JE, Nishisaki A, Jagannathan N, Hunyady AI, Greenberg RS, Reynolds PI, Matuszczak ME, Rehman MA, Polaner DM, Szmuk P, Nadkarni VM, McGowan FX, Litman RS, Kovatsis PG: Airway management complications in children with difficult tracheal intubation from the Pediatric Difficult Intubation (PeDI) registry: a prospective cohort analysis. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 4:37-48, 2016

84. Connolly C, Miskolci O, Phelan D, Buggy DJ: End-of-life in the ICU: moving from 'withdrawal of care' to a palliative care, patient-centred approach. Br J Anaesth 2016; 117: 143-5

85. Komatsu R, Makarova N, You J, Sessler DI, Anthony DG, Kasuya Y, Soltesz EG, Turan A: Etomidate and the risk of complications after cardiac surgery: A retrospective cohort analysis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2016; 30: 1516-22

86. Myles PS, Grocott MP, Boney O, Moonesinghe SR, COMPAC-StEP Collaborators: Standardizing end points in perioperative trials: towards a core and extended outcome set. Br J Anaesth 2016; 116: 586-9

87. Elsharkawy H, Salmasi V, Mounir-Soliman L, Sakr Esa WA, R B: Anterior quadratus lumborum block versus transversus abdominis plane block with liposomal bupivacaine: A case report. J Anesth Crit Care 2016; 6: 00214

88. Elsharkawy H, Babazade R, Kolli S, Kalagara H, Soliman ML: The Infiniti Plus ultrasound needle guidance system improves needle visualization during the placement of spinal anesthesia. Korean J Anesthesiol 2016; 69: 417-9

89. O'Sullivan KE, Breen EP, Gallagher HC, Buggy DJ, Hurley JP: Understanding STAT3 signaling in cardiac ischemia. Basic Res Cardiol 2016; 111: 27

90. Cheng J, Chen SL, Zimmerman N, Dalton JE, LsSalle G, Rosenquist R: A new radiofrequency ablation procedure to treat sacroiliac joint pain. Pain Physician 2016; 19: 603-15

91. Dalton JE, Bolen SD, Mascha EJ: Publication bias: The elephant in the review. Anesth Analg 2016; 123: 812-3

92. Mascha EJ, Mazo V: Predicting in-hospital postoperative mortality for the practitioner: Beyond the numbers. Anesthesiology 2016; 124: 523-5

93. Vetter TR, Mascha EJ, Kilgore ML: Physician supervision of nurse anesthetists: To opt in or to opt out? Anesth Analg 2016; 122: 1766-8

94. Sun Z, Hesler BD, Makarova N, Dalton JE, Doan M, Moraska A, De Oliveira G, Turan A: The association between rheumatoid arthritis and adverse postoperative outcomes: A retrospective analysis. Anesth Analg 2016; 122: 1887-93

95. Tran N-H, Olomu PN, Bocanegra A, Khan A, Cheyney J, Handy A, Szmuyk P: Laryengeal Mask Airway Supreme in Children: a retrospective audit. J Anesth Periop Med 3:241-246, 2016

96. Truszewski Z, Krajewski P, Fudalej M, Smereka J, Frass M, Robak O, Nguyen B, Ruetzler K, Szarpak L: A comparison of a traditional endotracheal tube versus ETView SL in endotracheal intubation during different emergency conditions: A randomized, crossover cadaver trial. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95: e5170

97. Schuerner P, Grande B, Piegeler T, Schlaepfer M, Saager L, Hutcherson MT, Spahn DR, Ruetzler K: Hands-off time for endotracheal intubation during cpr is not altered by the use of the c-mac video-laryngoscope compared to conventional direct laryngoscopy. A randomized crossover manikin study. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0155997

98. Schmidt AR, Ruetzler K, Haas T, Schmitz A, Weiss M: Impact of oxygen sources on performance of the Ventrain ventilation device in an in vitro set-up. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2016; 60: 241-9

99. Schmidt AR, Ruetzler K, Haas T, Schmitz A, Weiss M: [Monitoring tidal volumes when using the Ventrain emergency ventilator]. Anaesthesist 2016; 65: 514-20

100. Piegeler T, Neth P, Schlaepfer M, Sulser S, Albrecht R, Seifert B, Spahn DR, Ruetzler K: Advanced airway management in an anaesthesiologist-staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS): A retrospective analysis of 1047 out-of-hospital intubations. Resuscitation 2016; 105: 66-9

101. Pavo N, Goliasch G, Nierscher FJ, Stumpf D, Haugk M, Breckwoldt J, Ruetzler K, Greif R, Fischer H: Short structured feedback training is equivalent to a mechanical feedback device in two-rescuer BLS: a randomised simulation study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2016; 24: 70

102. Ahuja S, Cohen B, Hinkelbein J, Diemunsch P, Ruetzler K: Practical anesthetic considerations in patients undergoing tracheobronchial surgeries: a clinical review of current literature. J Thorac Dis 2016; 8: 3431-41


1. Liu N, Rinehart J: Closed-loop propofol administration: Routine care or a research tool? What impact in the future? Anesth Analg 122:4-6, 2016

2. Sessler DI: Preventing respiratory depression. Anesthesiology 122:484-485, 2016

3. Sessler DI: Opioids and postoperative shivering. J Clin Anesth 31:42-43, 2016

4. Vetter TR, Mascha EJ: Physician Supervision of Nurse Anesthetists: To Opt In or To Opt Out? Anesth Analg 122: 1766-8, 2016

5. Mascha EJ, Mazo V:Predicting in-hospital postoperative mortality for the practitioner: Beyond the numbers. Anesthesiology 124:523-5, 2016

6. Dalton JE, Bolen SD, Mascha EJ. Publication Bias: The Elephant in the Review. Anesth Analg 123:812-3, 2016

Full Papers and Editorials in press

1. Duncan AE, Sarwar S, Kashy BK, Sonny A, Sale S, Alfirevic A, Yang D, Thomas JD, Gillinov M, Sessler DI: Early left and right ventricular response to aortic valve replacement. Anesth Analg

2. Williams MR, Ward DS, … Sessler DI: Evaluating patient-centered outcomes in trials of procedural sedation, part 1: Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education and Research (SCEPTER) Recommendations. Anesth Analg

3. Kleber A, Maurer F, Lorenz D, Wolf B, Albrecht F, Shopova T, Sessler DI, Volk T, Kreuer S, Fink T: Cellular origin of exhaled 3-pentanone — a putative marker of system inflammation? J Breath Res

4. Evron S, Weissman A, Toivis V, Shahaf DB, You J, Sessler DI, Ezri T: Evaluation of the Temple Touch Pro, a novel noninvasive core-temperature monitoring system. Anesth Analg

5. Royse CF, Saager L, Whitlock R, Royse A, Vincent J, Devereaux PJ, Kurz A, Panjasawatwong K, Seessler DI: The impacvt of methylprednisolone on postoperative quality of recovery and delirium in the Steroids In CaRdiac Surgery (SIRS) trial: a randomized, double-blind, placeblo-controlled sub-study. Anesthesiology

6. Duceppe E, Parlow J, MacDonald P, Lyoons K, McMullen M, Srinathan S, Graham M, Tandon V, Styles K, Bessissow A, Sessler DI, Bryson G, Devereaux PJ: Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines on perioperative cardiac risk assessment and management for patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Can J Cardiol

7. Panjasawatwong K, Lin P, Karimi N, You J, Sessler DI: Outcomes of physician patients having non-cardiac surgery: a registry analysis. J Anesth

8. Abd-Elsayed A, Mascha EJ, Yang D, Sessler DI, Duncan A: Hyperinsulinemic normoglycemia decreases glucose variability duirng cardiac surgery. J Anesth

9. Bomberg H, Klingele M, Wagenpfeil S, Spanuth E, Volk T, Sessler DI, Schäfers H-J, Groesdonk HV: Presepsin (sCD14-St) is a novel risk marker for risk stratification ini cardiac surgery patients. Anesthesiology

10. Maurer F, Lorenz D, Pielsticker G, Volk T, Sessler D, Baumbach J, Kreuer S: Adherence of volatile propofol to various types of plastic tubing. J Breath Res

11. Schell-Chaple HM, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Sessler DI, Puntillo K: Effects of intravenous acetaminophen on core body temperature and hemodynamic responses in febrile critically ill adults: a randomized clinical trial. Crit Care Med

12. Cheng GS, Ilfeld BM. A review of postoperative analgesia for breast cancer surgery. Pain Manag

13. Cheng GS, Ilfeld BM. An evidence-based review of the efficacy of perioperative analgesic techniques for breast cancer-related surgery. Pain Med

14. Ilfeld BM, Gabriel RA, Saulino MF, Chae J, Peckham PH, Grant SA, Gilmore CA, Donohue MC, deBock MG, Wongsarnpigoon A, Boggs JW. Infection rate of electrical leads used for percutaneous neuromuscular stimulation of the peripheral nervous system. Pain Practice

15. Ilfeld BM, Grant SA, Gilmore CA, Chae J, Wilson RD, Wongsarnpigoon A, Boggs JW. Neurostimulation for post-surgical analgesia: A novel system enabling ultrasound-guided percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation. Pain Practice

16. Ilfeld BM, Gilmore CA, Grant SA, Bolognesi MP, Del Gaizo DJ, Wongsarnpigoon A, Boggs JW. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation for analgesia following total knee arthroplasty: A prospective feasibility study. J Orthop Surg Res

17. Finn DM, Ilfeld BM, Unkart JT, Madison SJ, Suresh PJ, Sandhu NS, Kormylo NJ, Malhotra N, Loland VJ, Wallace MS, Wen CH, Morgan AC, Wallace AM. Post-mastectomy cancer recurrence with and without a continuous paravertebral nerve block in the immediate postoperative period: A prospective multi-year follow-up pilot study of a randomized, triple-masked, placebo-controlled investigation. J Anesthesia

18. Ilfeld BM, Gabriel RA, Trescot AM. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous cryoneurolysis providing postoperative analgesia lasting multiple weeks following a single administration: A replacement for continuous peripheral nerve blocks? Korean J Anesthesiol

19. Khatibi B, Said ET, Sztain JF, Monahan AM, Gabriel RA, Furnish TJ, Tran JV, Donohue MC, Ilfeld BM. Continuous transversus abdominis plane nerve blocks: Does varying local anesthetic delivery method—automatic repeated bolus vs. continuous basal infusion—influence the extent of sensation to cold? A randomized, triple-masked, crossover study in volunteers. Anesth Analg

20. Kariem El-Boghdadly, Hesham Elsharkawy, Anthony Short, Ki Jinn Chin: Reply to Dr La Colla. Reg Anesth Pain Med

21. Rovnat Babazade, Alparslan Turan, Vinayak Nadar, Jacob Cecil, Hesham Elsharkawy, Ali Sakr Esa Wael, Loran Mounir Soliman, John Seif, John George, Kamal Maheshwari, Ehab Farag, Nicole Zimmerman, Daniel Sessler: Effect of InfinitiPlus Needle Guidance on Performing Ultrasound Guided Femoral Nerve Blocks. Eur J Anesth

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1. Farag E, Kurz A: Perioperative Fluid Management. Springer. Switzerland. 407 Pages. 2016

Book Chapters

1. Farag E, Ebrahim ZY: The perioperative use of albumin. In Perioperative Fluid Management. Springer. Switzerland. 407 Pages. 2016

2. Maheshwari K: Case scenario for perioperative fluid management for major colorectal surgery. In Perioperative Fluid Management. Springer. Switzerland. 407 Pages. 2016

3. Argalious M, Arora H: Case scenario for fluid management in liver resection. In Perioperative Fluid Management. Springer. Switzerland. 407 Pages. 2016

4. Sreedharan R and Abdelmalak, B Hyperglycemia in Textbook of Critical Care 7th e. Vincent JL, Abraham E, Kochanek P, Moore F, Fink M. Elsevier 2016

5. Sreedharan R and Abdelmalak, B Hypoglycemia in Textbook of Critical Care 7th e. Vincent JL, Abraham E, Kochanek P, Moore F&, Fink M. Elsevier 2016

6. Végh T.: Posztoperatív veseelégtelenség tüdőreszekció után In Anesztéziai szövődmények megelőzése és kezelése. Medicina Kiadó. Hungary. 473-480 Pages. 2016

7. Végh T.: Posztpulmonectómiás tüdőoedema In Anesztéziai szövődmények megelőzése és kezelése. Medicina Kiadó. Hungary. 281-288 Pages. 2016

8. Végh T.: Reexpanziós pulmonalis oedema In Anesztéziai szövődmények megelőzése és kezelése. Medicina Kiadó. Hungary. 275-280 Pages. 2016

9. Végh T:. A tüdőbetegek és mellkassebészeti betegek perioperatív ellátása In Perioperatív betegellátás. Medicina Kiadó. Hungary. 185-210 Pages. 2016

10. Végh T:. How about esophagectomies? In Postoperative Care in Thoracic Surgery. Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

11. Hesham Elsharkawy, Mohamed Attala Naguib. Centrally Acting Non-Opioid Analgesics, Chapter 8, Stoelting's Pharmacology & Physiology in Anesthetic Practice, 5th edition.

12. Hesham Elsharkawy, Mohamed Attala Naguib, M. Peripherally Acting Analgesics, Chapter 9, Stoelting's Pharmacology & Physiology in Anesthetic Practice, 5th edition.

13. Kamal Maheshwari. Pharmacology and ultrasound. Brown's Atlas of Regional Anesthesia: Edition 5. 2016.

14. Kamal Maheshwari, David L Brown, Loran Mounir-Soliman, and Ehab Farag. Pharmacology. Brown's Regional Anesthesia Review. 2016